# Circuits 1

### Main Reference Book

Tim Hanshaw, “Real Analog: An Introduction to Electrical Circuits”, free online access

Roland E. Thomas, Albert J. Rosa, and Gregory J. Toussaint
The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits”, Wiley, 7th Edition, 2012

### Course Goals

• An introduction to electrical circuit analysis, design and evaluation.
• Emphasis on definitions of basic variables, passive circuit components and the ideal operational amplifier.
• DC analysis of circuits and dc circuit theorems are stressed.
• AC signals are introduced.
• Computer analysis software integrated throughout the course.

## Course Modules

• Define voltage and current in terms of electrical charge
• State common prefixes and the symbols used in scientific notation
• State the passive sign convention from memory
• Determine the power absorbed or generated by an circuit element, based on the current and voltage provided to it
• Write symbols for independent voltage and current sources
• State from memory the function of independent voltage and current sources
• Write symbols for dependent voltage and current sources
• State governing equations for the four types of dependent sources
• State Ohm’s Law from memory
• Use Ohm’s Law to perform voltage and current calculations for resistive circuit elements
• Identify nodes in an electrical circuit
• Identify loops in an electrical circuit
• State Kirchhoff’s current law from memory, both in words and as a mathematical expression
• State Kirchhoff’s voltage law from memory, both in words and as a mathematical expression
• Apply Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws to electrical circuits
• Identify series and parallel combinations of circuit elements
• Determine the equivalent resistance of series resistor combinations
• Determine the equivalent resistance of parallel resistor combinations
• State voltage and current divider relationships from memory
• Determine the equivalent resistance of electrical circuits consisting of series and parallel combinations of resistors
• Sketch equivalent circuits for non-ideal voltage and current meters
• Analyze circuits containing non-ideal voltage or current sources
• Determine the effect of non-ideal meters on the parameter being measured
• Use nodal analysis techniques to analyze electrical circuits
• Use mesh analysis techniques to analyze electrical circuits
• Define signals and systems
• Represent systems in block diagram form
• Identify system inputs and outputs
• Write input-output equations for systems
• State the defining properties of linear systems
• Determine whether a system is linear
• State conditions under which superposition can be applied to circuit analysis
• Analyze electrical circuits using the principle of superposition
• Define the i-v characteristic for a circuit
• Represent a resistive circuit in terms of its i-v characteristic
• Represent a resistive circuit as a two-terminal network
• Determine Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits for circuits containing power sources and resistors
• Relate Thévenin and Norton equivalent circuits to i-v characteristics of two-terminal networks
• Determine a load resistance which will maximize the power transfer from a circuit
• State ideal operational amplifier modeling rules
• State constraints on the operational amplifier output voltage
• Represent operational amplifiers as dependent voltage sources
• Be able to identify standard operational amplifier pin connections
• Analyze electrical circuits containing ideal operational amplifiers and resistors
• Sketch op-amp based circuits which perform the following operations:
• Inverting voltage amplification
• Non-inverting voltage amplification
• Differencing (subtraction)
• Buffering
• Describe the operation of a comparator
• Briefly describe the effect of the following non-ideal op-amp parameters, relative to ideal op-amp performance:
• Finite input resistance
• Finite output resistance
• Finite op-amp gain
• Qualitatively state the effect of energy storage on the type of mathematics governing a system
• Write the mathematical expression for a unit step function
• Sketch the unit step function
• Sketch shifted and scaled versions of the unit step function
• Write the mathematical expression for a decaying exponential function
• Use a unit step function to restrict an exponential function to times greater than zero
• Write the circuit symbol for a capacitor
• State the mechanism by which a capacitor stores energy
• State the voltage-current relationship for a capacitor in both differential and integral form
• State the response of a capacitor to constant voltages and instantaneous voltage changes
• Write the mathematical expression describing energy storage in a capacitor
• Determine the equivalent capacitance of series and parallel combinations of capacitors
• Write the circuit symbol for an inductor
• State the mechanism by which an inductor stores energy
• State the voltage-current relationship for an inductor in both differential and integral form
• State the response of an inductor to constant voltages and instantaneous current changes
• Write the mathematical expression describing energy storage in an inductor
• Determine the equivalent inductance of series and parallel combinations of inductors